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Child labour laws: A step back for advancing Bolivia?

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Samuel Juan (left) and his siblings live in a poor area of La Paz


For nine-year-old Samuel Juan Ramos Gomez, brick making is part of everyday life. When he has finished school for the day, he puts down his pencil and picks up a shovel, helping his parents in the small brick factory at the back of his house

The BBC’s Katy Watson reports on the controversy surrounding child labour in Bolivia

The new bill kept the official minimum working age at 14, in line with international labour conventions in developing countries

But it introduced two exceptions. For children aged between 10 and 12, work is allowed if they attend school, are self-employed and get parental permission. And from 12, children can do light work for others – mining and brick making are not considered light work.

In all cases, the work needs to be authorised and registered with a child protection officer

We know the realities of Bolivia says Katarina Johansson Mekoulou, the deputy representative of Unicef in Bolivia However, these two exemptions to the minimum age are of great concern to us because we see this as a risk – the most vulnerable children will be at risk of abuse.

The International Labour Organization (ILO) argues that child labour should not be justified as a necessary evil, nor as a development strategy, but sponsors of the bill disagree. They say this law addresses Bolivia’s needs and is part of a plan to eradicate extreme poverty by 2025

A step back would be turning a blind eye to the reality for the boys and girls who work says the politician Javier Zavaleta, who was one of the sponsors of the new bill

Any man or woman from a developed country who walks around the poorest neighbourhoods of Bolivia will see things that they’ll never understand because poverty is really extreme in some parts in Bolivia.

But we aren’t making laws for developed countries, we’re making laws for Bolivians.

Back in Alpacoma, I met Maria Rosminda Quispe, who runs a centre offering families healthcare and educational facilities. Whether it is little boys helping in the brickworks or little girls looking after their younger siblings while their parents work, all forms of child labour are problematic, she says.

A child begins to lose his innocence and starts to assume an attitude of an adult she says. Physically, their growth speeds up, they have wider shoulders, more calluses on their hands and they end up having the profile of an adult.

And then of course we have the social issues, the relationships. Those children find it hard to be with their peers who don’t work. They look for people who are older than them.

For her, the law it is not a way out of poverty

Many parents and mothers are going to decide that they can work or the child will feel that the law is supporting him, she says. But we aren’t considering the consequences that it will have on the life of the child Laws tell you one thing, but reality is another

Brian, a 14 year old who comes to the centre to do homework every day, is an example of that reality

He has been making bricks with his family for as long as he can remember, putting in up to five hours a day. He would prefer to study if he had a choice

He wants to be an architect and his parents support him. But how to pay for his education? Make more bricks, he says

It is a vicious circle for many children in Bolivia

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İçişleri Bakanlığı’ndan yeni koronavirüs genelgesi! Oteller sadece müşterine yemek hizmeti verebilecek

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Son dakika: İçişleri Bakanlığı 81 il valiliğine “Konaklama Tesislerindeki Restoranlar” konulu genelge gönderdi. Genelgeye göre, otel ve konaklama tesislerindeki lokanta veya restoranlar sadece konaklama yapan müşterilerine yemek hizmeti verebilecek. Ayrıca bu işletmeler saat 22.00’den sonra müzik yayını yapamayacak.

İçişleri Bakanlığı, denetimler ve ihbarlar üzerine otel ve konaklama tesislerinin restoran ile lokantalarına yönelik valiliklere genelge gönderdi.

SADECE KONAKLAMA YAPAN MÜŞTERİLERE HİZMET VERİLECEK

Genelgeye göre, otel ve konaklama tesislerindeki lokanta veya restoranlar sadece konaklama yapan müşterilere yemek hizmeti verebilecek.

OTELLERDEKİ RESTORANLAR PAKET SERVİS YAPAMAYACAK

Otel ve konaklama tesislerindeki lokanta veya restoranlar dışarıya paket servisi yoluyla satış yapamayacak.

22’DEN SONRA MÜZİK YAYINI YAPILAMAYACAK

Otel ve konaklama tesislerinde bulunan restoran, lokanta ve diğer salonlarında saat 22.00’den sonra her türlü müzik yayını yapılamayacak.

Bu doğrultuda;

1. Yeme-içme yerleri için getirilen kısıtlamalardan istisna tutulan otel ve konaklama tesislerindeki lokanta veya restoranlar sadece konaklama yapan müşterilerine yönelik yemek hizmeti verebilecek.

2. Otel ve konaklama tesislerindeki lokanta veya restoranların dışarıya paket servisi yoluyla satış yapmalarına müsaade edilmeyecek.

3. Bu yerlere yönelik denetim faaliyetleri yoğunlaştırılacak ve etkinliği artırılacak.

4. Kolluk kuvvetlerince yapılan denetimlerde, otel ve konaklama tesislerindeki lokanta veya restoranlarda bulunan müşterilerin Kimlik Bildirme Kanunu çerçevesinde bildirimde bulunulan kişiler arasında olup olmadığının muhakkak kontrol edilecek.

5. Kimlik Bildirme Kanunu çerçevesinde yapılan bildirimlerle otel ve konaklama tesislerinin kendi kayıtları arasında tutarsızlık olup olmadığının denetlenecek.

6. Otel ve konaklama tesislerinde bulunan restoran, lokanta ve diğer salonlarında saat 22.00’den sonra müzik yayınına (canlı müzik, kayıt dinletilmesi vb. her türlü yayın dahil) hiçbir şartta yapılamayacak.

Vali ve kaymakamlarca yukarıda belirtilen esaslar doğrultusunda Umumi Hıfzıssıhha Kanununun 27’nci ve 72’nci maddeleri uyarınca İl/İlçe Umumi Hıfzıssıhha Kurulları kararlarının ivedilikle alınması ve uygulamada herhangi bir aksaklığa meydan verilmeyecek.

İDARİ İŞLEM TESİS EDİLECEK

Belirlenen esaslara aykırı uygulama yaptığı veya eğlence yeri şeklinde faaliyetlerde bulunduğu tespit edilen otel ve konaklama tesislerine Umumi Hıfzıssıhha Kanununun ve Turizmi Teşvik Kanununun ilgili maddeleri gereğince idari işlem tesis edilecek.

ADLİ İŞLEM BAŞLATILACAK

Konusu suç teşkil eden davranışlara ilişkin Türk Ceza Kanununun 195’inci maddesi kapsamında gerekli adli işlemler başlatılacak.

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Egypt victim rights centre files appeal

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An Egyptian center that can help alleged torture sufferers and documents their cases has vowed to carry on to operate despite a purchase for this to seal lower

Authorities had because of the Nadeem Center until Monday to cease activities saying it had breached rules

The audience has filed a sudden appeal from the decision

Privileges groups have criticised Egypt because of its attack on dissent among an outburst of reported torture of detainees Authorities deny the accusations

El Nadeem Center for Rehab of Sufferers of Violence has operated since 1993 supplying support and guidance to sufferers of torture

The organisation was because of be closed last Wednesday charged with breaking unspecified health ministry rules But government bodies decided to delay an order allow it time for you to contest the choice

Aida Seif alDawla the particular groups director stated the proceed to close it had been political

Human privileges groups have criticised the measure saying it comes down at any given time when enforced disappearances are rising and among growing worry about accusations of torture through the police and intelligence services

Activists accuse security forces of torturing detainees as well as detaining suspected activists or militant Islamists without confirming their busts accusations declined through the government

Egyptian Leader Abdul Fattah alSisi brought the militarys overthrow of Islamist Leader Mohammed Morsi in 2013 following mass protests

Since that time as much as 40000 individuals are believed to possess been detained The USbased Human Privileges Watch describes the attack as ferocious

Greater than 1000 protesters mostly Islamists happen to be wiped out around the roads

Egyptian authorities deny the Arab mobile phone industry’s most populous nation has came back towards the repression of history

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Extinct plant discovered in amber

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Biologists have referred to a brand new types of extinct plant according to two fossil flowers which were held in portions of amber not less than 15 million years

Strychnos electri goes towards the genus whose tropical bushes trees and vines are renowned for creating the deadly contaminant strychnine

The United States scientists referred to it as following the Greek word for amber (elektron) – the fossilised resin of lengthy-dead trees

Their discovery seems within the journal Character Plants

The 2 flowers were among 500 fossils collected on the 1986 area visit to Professor George Poinar of Or Condition College

Prof Poinar is really a famous entomologist and many of these individuals were bugs But after nearly 3 decades focusing on the bugs his eye chosen the flowers

These were remarkably complete – unlike most plant fossils present in amber that are usually just fragments

In 2015 he sent high-resolution photos to Professor Lena Struwe at Rutgers College

Most likely poisonous

These flowers appeared as if they’d just fallen from the tree stated Prof Poinar I figured they could be Strychnos and that i sent these to Lena since i understood she was a specialist for the reason that genus

Prof Struwe go about evaluating the physique from the flowers to any or all 200 known Strychnos species brushing the collections of multiple museums and herbaria

The figures mostly accustomed to identify types of Strychnos are flower morphology and thats what we should fortunately have with this fossil stated Prof Struwe

I checked out each specimen of ” New World ” species captured pics of and measured it and in comparison it towards the photo George sent me I requested myself How can the fur around the flower petals look? Where would be the fur situated? and so forth

For that creatures from the late cretaceous S electri was most likely not so good eating

Types of the genus Strychnos are nearly all toxic in some manner stated Prof Poinar

Each plant features its own alkaloids with different effects Many are more toxic than the others also it might be that they are effective as their poisons offered some defence against herbivores

The favourite such alkaloid strychnine is really a contaminant that when created the foundation of numerous rat poisons – in addition to being certainly one of Norman Batess murder weapons within the Alfred Hitchcock movie Psycho

However these plants also fall inside the asterid family including greater than 80000 flowering plants including most of the ones humans eat from taters and mint to sunflowers and coffees

The brand new discovery is an important accessory for the fossil record of the family that is very poorly understood

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